Recidivism studies

Information provided by National Administrations (regularly updated)

Strategic Targeting of Recidivism Through Evaluation & Measurement (STREAM)

Website of the Project: here

 

Croatia

Šarić Jandre (2013) Prediktori zatvorskog recidivizma nakon izdržavanja prve zatvorske kazne [ENG. Predictors of recidivism in prisoners after serving their first prison sentence]Zagreb: Zora Raboteg-Šarić, Institut društvenih znanosti Ivo Pilar.

Abstract:

The prison population presents an especially selected group of criminal offenders with respect to the seriousness of their crimes, rate of offenses and high levels of recidivism. Substantial research shows that criminal recidivism in prisoners is determined by several groups of factors including their socialization context while growing up, individual circumstances and habits before the start of the prison sentence, personality traits as well as effectiveness of prison sentence and the quality of post-release support upon re-entry into society.

The goal of this study was to determine which factors related to the socialization context of growing up and individual characteristics of the prisoner which preceded the prison sentence can best predict the continuation of criminal activities and their return to prison.

During the diagnostics intake procedure on the prisoner at the beginning of the prison sentence, groups of sociodemographic variables were collected which describe the prisoner and his family circumstances while growing up, education, involvement in criminal activities, substance abuse and personality traits measured with Eysenck’s personality questionnaires- EPQ RA and EPQ IVE. The participants in this study were prisoners (N=1082) who were serving their first prison sentence. Data on the reincareration rates of prisoners involved in this study was collected over the course of many years.

The results of regression analysis showed that out of 28 variables the strongest predictors of criminal recidivism are substance abuse and juvenile criminal offenses. Other significant predictors are: completion of schooling out of the regular school system, higher venturesomeness , lower empathy, shorter prison sentence and lower age at the start of the first prison sentence. The results are discussed within the frame of developmental theories of criminal behavior and with consideration to their practical implications for preventing criminal behavior and the resocialization of prisoners.

 More information here.

Denmark

1. Kriminalforsorgen: Recidivstatistik 2006-2008 (2011). (Department of Prisons and Probation: Relapse in the the Prison and Probation Service 2006-2008): Yearly statistics on relapse rates within the Prison and Probation Service. Relapse is defined as a new prison sentence or community sanction that became legally binding within two years of release from prison or from commencement of the community sanction in 2006, 2007 and 2008.

2. Ragnar Kristoffersen et al. (2010). “Retur” (Relapse study in the correctional services of the Nordic countries: The Nordic relapse study “Retur. En nordisk undersøgelse af recidiv blandt klienter i kriminal-forsorgen” published May 2010 is a product of a yearlong collaboration between a group of researchers and statisticians from the correctional services in the Nordic countries.

  • Reoffending figures are reported based on a common definition of re-offending, equally long observation period and a shared classification of offender groups, i.e. the correctional clientele in the Nordic countries divided into five offender groups: Prisoners, community service, conditional sentence with supervision, conditional sentence with treatment and electronic monitoring. The latter four groups are for simplistic reasons lumped into one category labelled “probation”. The object of the study is to present and discuss re-offending rates among those released from prison sentences and those who started serving a community sanction in the probation services in 2005. Relapse is defined as a new prison sentence or community sanction that became legally binding within two years of release from prison or from commencement of the community sanction in 2005.
  • The survey comprises a total of almost 60 000 offenders in the Nordic countries. The study represents an important pioneering effort as there are no previous relapse studies that report and analyses re-offending in the correctional services in a Nordic comparative perspective. The study shows that Norway has the lowest overall re-offending rate among correctional clients in the Nordic countries.
  • Within two years a fifth of all released from prison and among those who began serving a sentence in the community in Norway incurred a new conviction that had to be served in the correctional services. In the other Nordic countries the overall re-offending rate varies from 24 % to 31 %. The authors emphasize that the results cannot be used to predict the effects of various measures delivered to the offenders while serving their sentences, but on the other hand it cannot be ruled out that such national differences may have contributed to the overall re-offending rates, though the effect is probably marginal compared to the effect on recidivism caused by national differences in the distribution of offender groups with dissimilar risk profiles. The authors also point out that other external factors undoubtedly may have contributed to the differences in re-offending rates between the Nordic countries, such as clear up rates for criminal cases and the capacity to deal with them in the police and the courts, as well as changes in the lives of the offenders.

3. Andersen, Signe Hald (2012). “Serving time or serving the community? Exploiting a policy reform to assess the causal effects of community service on income, social benefit dependency and recidivism”. University Press of Southern Denmark.

Abstract:  There is a widespread belief among criminologists, judges and the like that criminals are better off serving non-custodial sentences instead of going to prison. However, empirical evidence of the effects of community service is scarce. This paper exploits a policy reform that implemented the use of community service as punishment among specific groups of criminals, Danish administrative data, and difference-in difference matching in order to assess the causal effect of community service on post-sentence income, dependency on social benefits, and crime. The results show that community service participants have higher long-run income levels and lower long-run levels of social benefit dependency compared to offenders who serve custodial sentences. However, while community service lowers recidivism among offenders convicted of violent crime and misdemeanour, there are no overall effects of community service on crime committed after the serving of a sentence. (link)

4. Clausen, Susanne (2007). “Samfundstjeneste – virker det?”. Jurist- og Økonomforbundets forlag (“Community Service – does it work?”)

5. Clausen, Susanne (2009). “Recidivundersøgelse vedrørende personer dømt for sædelighedskriminalitet”. Direktoratet for Kriminalforsorgen. (“A study of recidivism among persons convicted of a sexual crime”. Danish Prisons and Probation Service) (link)

6. Graunbøl, Hans et al. (2010). “Retur. En nordisk undersøgelse af recidiv blandt klienter i Kriminalforsorgen”. Kriminalforsorgen i Danmark, Finland, Island, Norge og Sverige. (“Return. A Nordic study of recidivism among clients in prison and probation service”) (link)

7. Jørgensen, Tanja Tambour (2011). “Afsoning i hjemmet. En effektevaluering af fodlænkeordningen”. Justitsministeriets Forskningskontor (“Imprisonment at home. An evaluation of the effect of electronic monitoring”) (link)

8. Klement, Christian (2011). “Samfundstjeneste. En effektevaluering”. Justitsministeriets Forskningskontor (“Community Service. An evaluation of the effects”) (link)

9. Kriminalforsorgens recidivstatistik 2012. Kriminalforsorgen 2013. Link. Department of Prison and Probation. Yearly statistics on relapse rates within the Prison and Probation Service. Relapse is defined as a new prison sentence or community sanction that became legally binding within two years of release from prison or from commencement of the community sanction.

10. Kriminalforsorgens recidivstatistik 2011. Kriminalforsorgen 2012. Link. Department of Prison and Probation.Yearly statistics on relapse rates within the Prison and Probation Service. Relapse is defined as a new prison sentence or community sanction that became legally binding within two years of release from prison or from commencement of the community sanction.

11. Kriminalforsorgens recidivstatistik 2010. Kriminalforsorgen 2011. Link. Department of Prison and Probation.Yearly statistics on relapse rates within the Prison and Probation Service. Relapse is defined as a new prison sentence or community sanction that became legally binding within two years of release from prison or from commencement of the community sanction.

12. Kriminalforsorgens recidivstatistik 2009. Kriminalforsorgen 2010. Link. Department of Prison and Probation.Yearly statistics on relapse rates within the Prison and Probation Service. Relapse is defined as a new prison sentence or community sanction that became legally binding within two years of release from prison or from commencement of the community sanction.

13. Klement, Christian & Pedersen, Anne-Julie Boesen. 2014. Samfundstjeneste – en udvidet effektevaluering. Link. An evaluation of the effects of community sanction.

14. Klement, Christian & Pedersen, Anne-Julie Boesen. 2014. Samfundstjeneste – en udvidet effektevaluering. Link. An evaluation of the effects of community sanction.

Estonia

Report on 2010 study: Recidivism in Estonia (link)

contact: andri.ahven@just.ee

Finland

Hypén Kimmo (2004), Vankilasta vuosina 1993-2001 vapautuneet ja vankilaan uudestaan palanneet. Vammala: Rikosseuraamusvirasto. (The released from prison in Finland 1993-2001 and the re-entered. Vammala: Criminal Sanctions Agency).

Abstract: Definition: The author uses the re-imprisonment as an indicator of recidivism.   Methodology: The total data collected from the central prisoner register include 30 000 separate persons and their 100 000 prison terms. Foreigners and the dead during the follow-up time have been taken into account when calculating the share of the recidivists. Results: Over a half of all the released returned to prison during five years after release. The majority of those for the first time in prison did not return in prison. 80-90 percent of the young offenders returned to prison at least once. Men re-offend more often than women. Persons sentenced for homicides and sexual offences re-offend more rarely than others. One in four of those returned to prison did not commit a new cirime after release. Under 10 out of 100 of the first-timers ended up in prison vortex and they are the most socially excluded part of the Finnish adult population. Summary of the report can be found here.

France

“Mesurer la récidive. Contribution à la conférence de consensus de prévention de la récidive” (link)

Germany

1. Jörg-Martin Jehle, Hans-Jörg Albrecht, Sabine Hohmann-Fricke und Carina Tetal: Legalbewährung nach strafrechtlichen Sanktionen. Eine bundesweite Rückfalluntersuchung 2004 bis 2007, Berlin: Bundesministerium der Justiz (2010) Criminal Sanction and Recidivism. A nation wide study on recidivism from 2004 to 2007.

Abstract: The aim of the study is to try and examine the success rate of the German criminal justice system as concerns criminal relapses and reconvictions. The first wave of the study was comprised of all individuals who had either received a non-custodial sentence (fine, probation, conviction or other corrective measures based on criminal law concerning young offenders) during 2004 or who had been released from a custodial sentence during that year (custodial sentence, youth custody, remainder of a custodial sentence in the case of a revoked probation, placement in a psychiatric hospital, detoxification clinic or preventive detention). These individuals where monitored over a three year period to determine whether they subsequently appeared again in the Federal Register of Judicial Convictions. Based on this data, a comprehensive overview on recidivism dependent on type of sanction, type of offences, previous convictions, age and gender of the convicted person was obtained. The project is conducted in cooperation with the Institute of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice at the University of Göttingen and has been commissioned by the Federal Ministry of Justice.

2. Jörg-Martin Jehle, Hans-Jörg Albrecht, Sabine Hohmann-Fricke und Carina Tetal: Legalbewährung nach strafrechtlichen Sanktionen. Eine bundesweite Rückfalluntersuchung 2004 bis 2007, 2007 bis 2010 und 2004 bis 2010, Berlin: Bundesministerium der Justiz (2013) Criminal Sanction and Recidivism. A nation wide study on recidivism from 2004 to 2007, from 2007 to 2010 and from 2004 to 2010. The study is available here.

The study concerning the base year 2004 laid the foundation for a periodical recidivism study. It is planed that criminal records will be collected every three years and will be merged with the existing database (link).

Iceland

“Retur” – Relapse study in the correctional services of the Nordic countries, group of researchers and statisticians from the correctional services in the Nordic countries, May 2010

Prisoners, community service, conditional sentence with supervision, conditional sentence with treatment and electronic monitoring. The object of the study is to present and discuss re-offending rates among those released from prison sentences and those who started serving a community sanction in the probation services in 2005. Relapse is defined as a new prison sentence or community sanction that became legally binding within two years of release from prison or from commencement of the community sanction in 2005. The survey comprises a total of almost 60 000 offenders in the Nordic countries. (link1; link2)

Ireland

1. The Irish Prison Service & Central Statistics Office Recidivism Study 2013. The report is available here.

2. Probation Service Recidivism Study (2008 – 2013). The report is available here.

3. Drug and Alcohol Misuse Among Young Offenders on Probation Supervision in Ireland (2013). Findings from the Drugs and Alcohol Survey 2012. The study available here.

4. The Irish Prison Service facilitated a major study of prisoner re-offending by the UCD Institute of Criminology and the findings were published in May 2008.  The study found that after 4 years over 50% of prisoners released had not re-offended.  The rate is in the mid to lower range of recidivism rates when compared to similar countries internationally. Recidivism related reports (e.g. Recidivism Report (2007 – 2012) and the Drug and Alcohol Misuse Among Adult Offenders) are available here.

5. Also, of interest would be the Irish Probation Journal an annual publication with articles related to Probation and related activities. The journal usually includes some research reports. It is accessible through the following link: here

Italy

Abstracts of articles on Recidivism (The full articles (in Italian) can be found at the following address: www.rassegnapenitenziaria.it)

1. L. Baccaro, G. Mosconi, The Circle of Damned Souls, in Rassegna Penitenziaria e Criminologica, 2004, vol. 2, pages 212-237

Abstract: This article sets out the main results of a survey carried out in 2003 among the prisoners held in the Padova prison; the object of said survey were the reasons for recidivism, by reconstructing, on the one hand, the objective conditions characterising the status of former prisoner; on the other hand, the subjective experiences of the offenders and, in general, of their imprisonment experience. Eighty-five questionnaires were administered to prisoners with previous detention experiences, gathered in a sample stratified for different variables (age, origin, type of crime).

Consistently with the starting hypothesis, the problems arisen concern: the offenders’ arrival and their reception in prison, the social networks, employment, relations with family, the offenders’ know-how, their economic resources; their life experiences and the subjective images.

Beyond the objective difficulties arisen concerning various aspects, easily predictable, our survey highlighted, on the one hand, the poor prisoners’ awareness of those difficulties, as if the deprivations imposed by their detention experience inspired distorting idealizations and projections, with respect to a possible fruitful sense of reality; on the other hand, the survey showed a series of inconsistencies and simplifications, which, in turn, alter the reference framework of prisoners, with easily predictable effects. The prisoners really seem to live “nowhere” and out of time, in a place where the rules are different and everything is so possible as to become impossible. The sharp suspension of time in prison is evident, since prison is considered as a space where a different self is living; moreover, detention is felt as a situation which is not a consequence of offender’s behaviour and choices. Imprisonment is not felt as a time of justice, it is not a time for justice at the subjects’ disposal, it is not a time to be lived. This one seems to be the core of their recidivism experience, inspired by the same meaning of punishment.

2. F. Leonardi, The measures alternative to detention between social reinsertion and the knocking down of recidivism, in Rassegna Penitenziaria e Criminologica, 2007, vol. 2, pages 7-26

Abstract: Between 1975 and 2005, in Italy the percentage of convicted persons who served their sentences out of prisons grew up, but imprisonment is commonly considered as the best solution to limit the criminality rate.

The recidivism rate has been chosen as a parameter to assess the efficiency of the measures alternative to detention. A case study was carried out, through a quantitative longitudinal research, among those who ended their assignment to the probation service in 1998, verifying whether they perpetrated new crimes until 2005. The result was that only 19% of those who were assigned to the probation service re-offended in that period, while 68% of those who were in prison re-offended.

Therefore, the assignment to the probation service can be considered as a valid solution to solve the problems of prison overcrowding, while guaranteeing, at the same time, good results in terms of offenders’ social reinsertion.

3. F. Leonardi, Drug-addiction and measures alternatives to detention: the recidivism risk among the persons assigned to the probation service, in Rassegna Penitenziaria e Criminologica, 2009, vol. 1, pages 5-30

Abstract: Assuming that drug-addiction may affect people’s criminal behaviours, the addiction to alcohol or to drugs was surveyed for a sample of persons assigned to the probation service who ended that measure alternative to detention in 1998. For all of them, the recidivism rate was calculated by ascertaining the perpetration of further crimes until 2005. The result was compared with the result of convicted people who were granted the assignment to the probation service in special cases, a measure dedicated to drug-addicts and alcohol-addicts who accept to undergo a therapeutic rehabilitation programme.

The recidivism rate found among drug-addicts is the same, whether when they are granted the normal measure of assignment to the probation service or when they undergo the measure of assignment in special cases (31%) and that rate is higher than the recidivism rate of those ones who do not show any addiction status (16%), thus confirming that addiction is one of the reasons for a higher inclination to offend.

4. L. Brunori, C, Raggi (edited by), Never Again – recidivism and responsibility starting from the group. Project Hippokrates. Department of Penitentiary Administration, Ministry of Justice of Italy and Bologna University – Department of Psychology, 2004, pp. 200. (link)

Abstract: Project Hippokrates was funded by the European Social funds as an initiative for exchanges, research and training aimed at crime prevention throughout Europe. Its main aim was the research on recidivism, carried out by the instrument of the group-analysis.

Latvia

Kipena K., Zavackis A., Nikisins J. (2013). SODU IZCIETUŠO PERSONU NOZIEDZĪGO NODARĪJUMU RECIDĪVS, Rīga, Jurista Vārds, 27.08.2013., Nr. 35 (Kipena K., Zavackis A., Nikisins J. (2013). RECIDIVISM OF PERSONS RELEASED AFTER SERVING OF SENTENCE, Riga, official journal “Jurista vārds” 27.08.2013. Nr.35).

Definition: Authors of the study used two definitions of recidivism: a) new sentence against person released after serving of the sentence in prison/community or b) new sentence or criminal procedure against person released after serving of the sentence in prison/community.

Methodology: Study included analyses of 1767 cases of persons released from prison and probation in definite period. Results shows significant difference in reoffending by gender and age as well as give evidence that serving of full prison sentence are related to highest recidivism level.

Abstract: Short abstract of the main results is available here.

The publication can be accessed here.

Netherlands

Every year, recidivism in the Netherlands is monitored by the Research and Documentation Centre (WODC) of the Ministry of Security and Justice. For this purpose the Dutch Recidivism Monitor is developed. English version of the fact-sheet for 2011 can be found here

a) The new factsheet (2012) is only available in Dutch and can be found here. A brochure that explains how the Dutch Recidivism Monitor works is available here. The English version of the WODC-website: http://english.wodc.nl/

b) Since the 70s a lot of studies (150 to 200) on recidivism have been carried out to look at the effectiveness of judiciary interventions (effect evaluations). Most of the time these are small-scale studies which have not led to a lot of general knowledge on the enforcement of sanctions and measures in the Netherlands. This study from the WODC can be seen as a systematic summary of the results of several studies, that might give more general knowledge. The publication can be found here. On the webpage can also be found the English summary as a separate document.

1. Zebel, S., Alberda, D.L., Wartna, B.S.J. (2014). Recidivism following probation or a community service order. Overview of the relapse into crime of adult offenders dealt with by the Dutch Probation Services in 2002-2009 (link). The English version of the summary is available too: O&B312_Summary.

2. Alberda, D., Wartna, B.S.J. (2013). Recidive na huiselijk geweldOntwikkelingen in de strafrechtelijke recidive van plegers van huiselijk geweld vervolgd in de periode 2007-2009. (link)

Summary & Main results: A study on recidivism after domestic violence: development of the criminal recidivism of perpetrators of domestic violence who have been prosecuted in the period of 2007-2009:

Of all perpetrators with a criminal case closed in 2009 concerning domestic violence, one out of three was prosecuted again for another crime within two years; one out of four for a serious crime (maximum possible punishment of 4 years); 4% for a very serious crime (maximum possible punishment of 8 years)

Recidivism of perpetrators of domestic violence is comparable to the recidivism of the total group of prosecuted people who committed an act of violence.

Recidivism is higher if a perpetrator besides the domestic violence committed another type of crime in the same period.

Recidivism amongst the prosecuted perpetrators for an act of (domestic) violence has slightly dropped between 2007 and 2009. The ones punished in 2007: 37,5% within 2 years another contact with the law. The ones punished in 2009: 33,4% within 2 years another contact with the law.

3. Weijters, G., Noordhuizen, S., Verweij, S., Wartna, B.S.J., Vergouw, S.J. (2013). Effect of participation in ESF programmes on work/education and criminal recidivism (link). The English version of the summary is available too: Cahier 2013-7_Summary.

Norway

Graunbøl et. al. (2010). Return. A Nordic relapse study among correctional clients”

The Nordic relapse study “Retur. En nordisk undersøgelse af recidiv blandt klienter i kriminalforsorgen” published in May 2010 is based on a common definition of reoffending, equally long observation period and a shared classification of offender groups, i.e. the correctional clientele in the Nordic countries divided into five offender groups: Prisoners, community service, conditional sentence with supervision, conditional sentence with treatment and electronic monitoring. The latter four groups are for simplistic reasons lumped into one category labeled “probation”. The object of the study is to present and discuss reoffending rates among those released from prison sentences and those who started serving a community sanction in the probation services in 2005. Relapse is defined as a new prison sentence or community sanction that became legally binding within two years of release from prison or from commencement of the community sanction in 2005. The survey comprises a total of almost 60 000 offenders in the Nordic countries. The study shows that Norway has the lowest overall reoffending rate among correctional clients in the Nordic countries, 20 %. In the other Nordic countries the overall reoffending rate varies from 24 % to 31 %. The report is written in Danish and Norwegian and can be downloaded here.

Poland

Teodor Szymanowski, 2010. ” Recydywa w Polsce” (ENG: Recidivism in Poland. FR: La Récidive en Pologne). The report is written in Polish language and can be downloaded here.

Spain: Catalonia

1. Redondo, S; Funes, J; Luque, M. E (1992), Justícia penal i reincidència. Anàlisi de la població de penats excarcerats a Catalunya. Barcelona:  Centre of Legal Studies, CEJFE.

Penal justice and recidivism. Analysis of the inmate population of Catalonia. Long-term follow-up study of a sampling of persons imprisoned in 1987. The penal and penitentiary variables studied are associated with readmission and other personal variables (link).

2. Luque,M.E; Ferrer, M; Capdevila. M (2004), La reincidència penitenciària a Catalunya.  Barcelona: Centre of Legal Studies, CEJFE.

Reconviction in Catalonia. This paper updates the rate of reconviction in Catalonia, presented at a paper of 10 years ago (Redondo, Funes, Luque, 1993) and it analyses the personal, penal and penitentiary variables of the population from 1997 released, based on an average of 5 years for knowing if he was reconvicted again. It offers a profile of the person relapsing and like an aspect newest of the research, it shows a predictive model of the reconviction, based on the most current studies about the models of formality of the risk (link)

3. Capdevila, M. Ferrer, M (2009), Taxa de reincidència penitenciària 2008. Barcelona,  Centre of Legal Studies, CEJFE

Recidivism rate of prison 2008. The study updates the data from two previous investigations conducted on the same topic. In this study people were released in 2002, which is tracking them until December 31, 2007 to find out if they returned to the prison system for a new crime committed after the date of its release. The investigation conducted various tests to be allowed to describe the relationships between the variables and recidivism (link).

4. Cid, J. Martí, J. (2011), El procés de desistiment de les persones empresonades. Obstacles i suports. Barcelona,  Centre of Legal Studies, CEJFE

Giving up the crime: the process followed by prisoners and their obstacles and supports. In this research a group of male inmates were interviewed some weeks before the end of their custodial sentence in order to analyze their narratives of abandon / persistence in criminal activity. The inmates were serving a prison sentence for property crimes and / or drug offences (link).

Switzerland

Storz Renate (1997), Rückfall nach Strafvollzug. Rückfallraten, Kriminalstatistische Befunde zu Wiederverurteilungen und Wiedereinweisungen (Bern: Bundesamt für Statistik)

In German: here

In French: here

Zusammenfassung: Die vorliegende Publikation informiert darüber, wie viele der jährlich aus dem Strafvollzug Entlassenen ein weiteres Mal verurteilt oder erneut in eine Strafanstalt eingewiesen werden. Unterscheiden sich die Rückfallraten nach Tat-, Täter- und Strafmerkmalen? Welchen Einfluss haben die Dauer des Aufenthaltes in einer Strafanstalt, das Vorhandensein vorheriger Aufenthalte, Alter und Geschlecht sowie die Art des begangenen Delikts auf die Rückfallraten der Entlassenen? Schliesslich wird auf die zeitliche Konstanz von Rückfallraten hingewiesen.

Résumé: La présente publication renseigne sur la proportion des personnes libérées chaque année qui subissent une nouvelle condamnation ou retournent en prison. Les taux de récidive varient-ils en fonction des caractéristiques des délits, des auteurs de ces derniers et des peines prononcées? Dans quelle mesure la durée de la détention, l’existence de précédentes incarcérations, l’âge et le sexe, le genre du délit influencent-ils le taux de récidive? Cette publication met également en évidence la fait que le risque de récidiver est le plus grand dans les deux années suivant la libération.

UK: England and Wales

Proven re-offending quarterly – July 2010 to June 2011 (link)

This report provides key statistics on proven re-offending in England and Wales. It gives proven re-offending figures for offenders who were released from custody, received a non-custodial conviction at court, received a caution, reprimand, warning or tested positive for opiates or cocaine between July 2010 and June 2011. Proven re-offending is defined as any offence committed in a one year follow-up period and receiving a court conviction, caution, reprimand or warning in the one year follow-up. Following this one year period, a further six month waiting period is allowed for cases to progress through the courts.

UK: Northern Ireland

1. R & S Bulletin 4/2014 Northern Ireland reoffending methodology: methodology and glossary  part 1

2. R & S Bulletin 5/2014 Adult reoffending in Northern Ireland 2010-11 cohort

3. R & S Bulletin 6/2014 Youth reoffending in Northern Ireland 2010-11

Web link for the following reports : here.

UK: Scotland

1. Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research (2012) Reducing Reoffending: Review of Selected Countries (link)

2. Scottish Government (2011) What works to reduce reoffending (link)

United States: Dpt of Justice

U.S. Department of Justice (April, 2014) Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 30 States in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010 (link)

 

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